Avesta: Daena in the Gathas

Daena is…

A good creation of Ahura Mazda, a supreme blessing for all living beings. Something whose allies are friends of God. Something eternal dictating that the supporters of evil beings are evil and the lovers of good beings are good. Something divided into good and evil. Something to be done, helped, obtained, improved, perfected, followed, taught and propagated. Daena is taught and propagated by Saoshyants and good people. Daena can be obtained through Asha (Righteous Truth) and Armaiti. Daena delivers the wicked to darkness and the righteous to light. Daena shames the wicked but pleases and helps the righteous. An individual’s Daena is manifested in their works, which can be good or evil. An evil person’s Daena leads them along their evil paths. Daena leads to Vohu Mana (Good Mind and Heart). Daena conquers.

Disclaimer: I do not know Avestan! These interpretations are taken from translations.

Here is every instance I found of the word Daena in the Gathas:

31:11

hyat nê mazdâ paourvîm gaêthåscâ tashô daênåscâ thwâ mananghâ xratûshcâ hyat astvañtem dadå ushtanem hyat shyaothanâcâ sêñghãscâ ýathrâ varenêñg vaså dâyetê.

Daena as creation of Mazda, mentioned alongside other good creations.

31:20

ýê âyat ashavanem divamnem hôi aparem xshyô daregêm âyû temanghô dushhvarethêm avaêtâs vacô têm vâ ahûm dregvañtô shyaothanâish hvâish daênâ naêshat.

Daena as something that delivers the wicked through their own acts to the land of darkness (Jahannam).

33:13

rafedhrâi vourucashânê dôishî-môi ýâ-vê abifrâ tâ xshathrahyâ ahurâ ýâ vanghêush ashish mananghô frô speñtâ ârmaitê ashâ daênå fradaxshayâ.

Daena as something to be realized or obtained through or in the form of Spenta Armaiti and Asha.

34:13

têm advânem ahurâ ýêm môi mraosh vanghêush mananghô daênå saoshyañtãm ýâ hû-karetâ ashâcît urvâxshat hyat civishtâ hudâbyô mîzhdem mazdâ ýehyâ tû dathrem.

Daena as the law or teaching of the Saoshyants.

44:9

tat thwâ peresâ eresh-môi vaocâ ahurâ, kathâ-môi ýãm ýaosh daênãm ýaosh dânê ýãm hudânâush paitishe sah’yât xshathrahyâ ereshvâ xshathrâ thwâvãs asîshtîsh mazdâ hademôi ashâ vohucâ shyãs mananghâ.

Daena as something Zarathustra wants to devote wholly to Ahura Mazda.

44:10

tat thwâ peresâ eresh-môi vaocâ ahurâ tãm daênãm ýâ hâtãm vahishtâ ýâ-môi gaêthå ashâ frâdôit hacêmnâ ârmatôish uxdhâish shyaothanâ eresh daidyat mah’yå cistôish thwâ îshtîsh usên mazdâ.

Daena as the best blessing for all living beings and a bringer of prosperity.

44:11

tat thwâ peresâ eresh-môi vaocâ ahurâ, kathâ têñg-â vîjêmyât ârmaitish ýaêibyô mazdâ thwôi vashyetê daênâ azêm tôi âish pouruyô fravôivîdê vîspêñg anyêñg manyêush spasyâ dvaêshanghâ.

Daena as something that is proclaimed or propagated.

45:2

at fravaxshyâ anghêush mainyû pouruyê ýayå spanyå ûitî mravat ýêm añgrem, nôit nâ manå nôit sêñghâ nôit xratavô naêdâ varanâ nôit uxdhâ naêdâ shyaothanâ nôit daênå nôit urvãnô hacaiñtê.

Daena as something that differs between the good and evil spirits.

45:11

ýastâ daêvêñg aparô mashyãscâ tarê-mãstâ ýôi îm tarê-manyañtâ anyêñg ahmât ýê hôi arêm manyâtâ saoshyañtô dêñg patôish speñtâ daênâ urvathô barâtâ patâ vâ mazdâ ahurâ!

Daena as something helped or served by Saoshyants or other good people, who thereby earn the friendship of Ahura Mazda.

46:6

at ýastêm nôit nâ isemnô âyât drûjô hvô dâmãn haêthahyâ gât hvô zî dregvå ýê dregvâitê vahishtô hvô ashavâ ýahmâi ashavâ fryô hyat daênå paouruyå då ahurâ.

Daena as the first/eternal something (law) laid down by Ahura, dictating that the partisans and supporters of evil beings are evil, and the lovers of good beings are good.

46:7

kêm-nâ mazdâ mavaitê pâyûm dadât hyat mâ dregvå dîdareshatâ aênanghê anyêm thwahmât âthrascâ mananghascâ ýayå shyaothanâish ashem thraoshtâ ahurâ tãm môi dãstvãm daênayâi frâvaocâ.

Daena as something that will benefit from or learn along with Zarathustra the answer to Zarathustra’s question about who his protector will be other than Vohu Mana and Ahura’s fire.

46:11

xshathrâish ýûjên karapanô kâvayascâ akâish shyaothanâish ahûm mereñgeidyâi mashîm ýêñg hvê urvâ hvaêcâ xraodat daênâ hyat aibî-gemen ýathrâ cinvatô peretush ýavôi vîspâi drûjô demânâi astayô.

Daena as something that the wicked are ashamed of and chides them as they go towards Hell.

47:6

at ýastêm nôit nâ isemnô âyât drûjô hvô dâmãn haêthahyâ gât hvô zî dregvå ýê dregvâitê vahishtô hvô ashavâ ýahmâi ashavâ fryô hyat daênå paouruyå då ahurâ.

Daena as something that helps seekers of truth, and/or something to be rewarded to the righteous.

48:4

ýê dât manô vahyô mazdâ ashyascâ hvô daênãm shyaothanâcâ vacanghâcâ ahyâ zaoshêñg ushtish varenêñg hacaitê thwahmî xratå apêmem nanâ anghat.

Daena as something manifested in decisions that can be good or bad.

49:4

ýôi dush-xrathwâ aêshemem vareden râmemcâ hvâish hizubîsh fshuyasû afshuyañtô ýaêshãm nôit hvarshtâish vãs duzhvarshtâ tôi daêvêñg dãn ýâ dregvatô daênâ.

Daena of the wicked associated with evil, misguidance, and the work of the Daevas.

49:5

at hvô mazdâ îzhâcâ âzûitishcâ ýê daênãm vohû sârshtâ mananghâ ârmatôish kascît ashâ huzêñtush tâishcâ vîspâish thwahmî xshathrôi ahurâ.

Daena of the righteous as something to be attached to Vohu Mana that delivers them to the Kingdom of Light.

49:6

frô vå fraêshyâ mazdâ ashemcâ mrûitê dà ýâ vê xratêush xshmâkahyâ â-mananghâ eresh vîcidyâi ýathâ-î srâvayaêmâ tãm daênãm ýâ xshmâvatô ahurâ.

Daena associated with someone speaking and teaching.

49:9

sraotû sâsnå fshêñghyô suyê tashtô nôit eresh-vacå sarêm didãs dregvâtâ hyat daênå vahishtê ýûjên mîzhdê ashâ ýuxtâ ýâhî dêjâmâspâ.

Daena associated with spiritual success.

51:13

tâ dregvatô maredaitî daênâ erezâush haithîm ýehyâ urvâ xraodaitî cinvatô peretå âkå h’âish shyaothanâish hizvascâ ashahyâ nãsvå pathô.

Daena as something that leads the wicked astray or causes him to attack good things.

51:17

berexdhãm môi ferashaoshtrô hvô-gvô daêdôisht kehrpêm daênayâi vanghuyâi ýãm hôi ishyãm dâtû xshayãs mazdå ahurô ashahyâ âzhdyâi gerezdîm.

Daena as something for the sake of which the speaker (Zarathustra?) wishes that Frashaoshtra Hvogva will be granted someone dear and beautiful.

51:19

hvô tat nâ maidyôi-månghâ spitamâ ahmâi dazdê daênayâ vaêdemnô ýê ahûm ishasãs aibî mazdå dâtâ mraot gayehyâ shyaothanâish vahyô.

Daena as something related to wisdom or knowledge.

51:21

ârmatôish nâ speñtô hvô cistî uxdhâish shyaothanâ daênâ ashem spênvat vohû xshathrem mananghâ mazdå dadât ahurô têm vanguhîm ýâsâ ashîm.

Daena as something that is advanced by holiness and/or advances a person in holiness.

53:1

vahishtâ îshtish srâvî zarathushtrahê dà spitâmahyâ ýezî hôi dât âyaptâ ashât hacâ ahurô mazdå ýavôi vîspâi â hvanghevîm ýaêcâ hôi daben sasheñcâ daênayå vanghuyå uxdhâ shyaothanâcâ (2). (zôt,)

Daena as something good to be done, perfected, or taught.

53:2

atcâ hôi scañtû mananghâ uxdhâish shyaothanâishcâ xshnûm mazdå vahmâi â fraoret ýasnãscâ kavacâ vîshtâspô zarathushtrish spitâmô ferashaoshtrascâ dånghô erezûsh pathô ýãm daênãm ahurô saoshyañtô dadât.

Daena as something to be followed and done, something given to Saoshyants.

53:4

têm zî vê speredânî varânî ýâ fedhrôi vîdât paithyaêcâ vâstryaêibyô atcâ hvaêtaovê ashâunî ashavabyô mananghô vanghêush hvênvat hanghush mêm bêedush mazdå dadât ahurô daênayâi vanghuyâi ýavôi vîspâi â.

Daena as something good to be granted or benefited in association with Vohu Mana.

53:5

sâhvênî vazyamnâbyô kainibyô mraomî xshmaibyâcâ vademnô mêñcâ-î mãzdazdûm vaêdôdûm daênâbîsh abyascâ ahûm ýê vanghêush mananghô ashâ vê anyô ainîm vîvêñghatû tat zî hôi hushênem anghat.

Daena as something through which one understands or attains Vohu Mana.

Yasna Haptanghaiti:

35:1

ahurem mazdãm ashavanem ashahe ratûm ýazamaide, ameshâ speñtâ huxshathrâ hudhånghô ýazamaide, vîspãm ashaonô stîm ýazamaide mainyevîmcâ gaêthyãmcâ berejâ vanghêush ashahe berejâ daênayå vanghuyå mâzdayasnôish. (râspî,) (ahurem … mâzdayasnôish (2).)

Daena as the Mazdayasni religion, something to be revered and ritually honored.

37:5

vohucâ manô ýazamaidê vohucâ xshathrem vanguhîmcâ daênãm vanguhîmcâ fseratûm vanguhîmcâ ârmaitîm. ýenghê hâtãm … tåscâ ýazamaide!!

Ibid.

39:2

daitikanãmcâ aidyûnãm hyat urunô ýazamaidê, ashâunãm âat urunô ýazamaidê kudô-zâtanãmcît narãmcâ nâirinãmcâ ýaêshãm vahehîsh daênå vanaiñtî vâ vêñghen vâ vaonarê vâ.

Daena as something belonging to the righteous that conquers.

40:1

âhû at paitî adâhû mazdâ ahurâ mazdãmcâ bûiricâ kereshvâ râitî tôi xrapaitî ahmat hyat aibî, hyat mîzhdem mavaêthem fradadâthâ daênâbyô mazdâ ahurâ

Daena as something relating to gifts and blessings?

41:5

thwôi staotarascâ mãthranascâ ahuramazdâ aogemadaêcâ usmahicâ vîsâmadaêcâ, hyat mîzhdem mavaêthem fradadâthâ daênâbyô mazdâ ahurâ, (thwôi staotarascâ … mazdâ ahurâ (2),)

Ibid.

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